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GMAT语法解题技巧:平行&结构(二)

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    想要迅速提高GMAT语法考试成绩,考生就需要熟练掌握一些GMAT语法考试中的必备知识点,并在解题的过程中灵活运用。下面就来对GMAT语法考试中的必备知识点进行简单的 介绍,希望能够为同学们备考GMAT语法考试带来帮助......
    OG12SC107
    Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
    (A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
    (B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission
    (C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
    (D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
    (E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton- induced X-ray emission,
    答案(A)
    答案中which发生跳跃指代,而且emission不处于介词短语中,这句话的which不能修饰其紧邻的名词emission,必须跳过分词修饰结构called …,修饰核心词technique。
    注意这不是 SVO,which指代S了而是called proton-induced X-ray emission分词形式做后置修饰定语。
    GWD-10-Q2: GWD-11-10
    Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
    A,Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is.
    B,Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is.
    C,Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become.
    D,Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become.
    E,Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is.
    答案为C。 B为啥不好?
    因为选B会有which修饰telephone的错误,which应该修饰radio的。虽然which可以跳跃,但是逻辑上都可以完成从句动作的时候,应该是就近优先的,即使逻辑上完成不了从 句的动作,跳跃也难保不会被判错,所以尽可能不跳跃修饰。GMAT题干中曾经用到可以跳跃的which,which跳跃是可以接受的,但是正确选项中很少出现过which跳跃修饰的情况,几乎都被其他结构替代 了,这说明如果有可以替代的正确选项,那么尽量不要选跳跃修饰的which,因为可能有歧义。
    C可以避免歧义,it一般不指代介词短语中的名词,优先指代主语,如果主语是人或者复数不能指代,则指代宾语,我不知道这题的radio还算不算宾语,但是至少你读出这个 句子的时候,它确实相当于一个宾语,至少算一个核心词。
    目前只见过A of B/A in B,which可以指代A,主要都发生在介词短语中。A选项可以我理解是因为CALLED从句表达的只是tech的另一个名字而已,本质上是同一东西,指代谁 逻辑上都没有歧义。目前我找到的which强悍地跳跃,无视前面的名词的非常少,而且基本都不出现在选项中,都是未画线部分。但是,可以跳跃不是意味着必定跳跃,当which前面有很多个名词的时候 ,不是只要有一个正确,which就会自动地正确地指代到那个词的。相反,GMAT会优先判断这是修饰混乱。所以,最好不要有跳跃指代,如果非跳不可,最好是使用单复数区分which的指代词。
    归纳一下,会发现which之所以要跳过介词结构是因为:其原本应该紧邻所修饰的核心名词,但是因为which的内容太长,而介词、分词等修饰结构又很短,所以把which结构后 置了。
    3、特别情况 A and B, which
    这个which到底修饰谁呢?是A?是B?还是A and B?
    我觉得这里正确修饰方法的原则只有一个:没有歧义。
    如果A and B中的B为复数(Bs),which后面动词也是复数,which指代会有歧义,让人不知道which到底指的是什么。
    As and Bs, which are (which指Bs? 或 which指As and Bs?)
    A and Bs, which are (which指Bs?或 which指A and Bs?)
    下面情况没有歧义:
    如果A和B都是单数,which后面动词复数,没有歧义,which修饰A and B。
    如果B是单数(不管A是单数还是复数),which后面动词也是单数,没有歧义,which修饰B。
    如果B是复数(不管A是单数还是复数)则必须要用which together,没有歧义,这时which修饰A and Bs。
    举两个例子:
    The human nervous system bears a superficial resemblance to a telephone system both because the former carries information in the form of electrical impulses and because all of its neural pathways converge in the brain and spinal cord, which together form a kind of central exchange.
    Unlike the shuttle and earlier spacecraft, which were capable of carrying sufficient power in fuel cells and batteries for their short flights, a permanently orbiting space station will have to generate its own electricity.
    其实which的指代问题肯定不会只有这些,而且最准确判断which指代的方法是通过句子的逻辑意思,但是在实战中有个别GMAT题目的很难判断本意,所以准备写大方向性的小 结还是必要的。
    以上对GMAT语法考试中的常见备考要点进行了较为详细的阐述,考生不妨以此为鉴,通过反复练习逐步掌握其在GAMT语法考试中的使用规律,从而在GMAT语法考试中发挥出更 好的水平。